the Elohim said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the living creatures." So Elohim created man in His image; male and female created He them.
She was not formed in the image of man, though she may have been in the image of some of the Elohim. "Man" is generic of both sexes. When, therefore, Elohim said "let us make man in our image;" and it is added, "male and female created he them;" it would seem that both the man and the woman were created in the image and likeness of Elohim. In this case, some of the Elohim are represented by Adam's form, and some by Eve's. I see no reason why it should not be so.
When mankind rises from the dead, they will doubtless rise as immortal men and women; and then, says Jesus, "they are equal to the angels;" on an equality with them in every respect. Adam only was in the image of Him that created him; but then, the Elohim that do the commandments of the invisible God, are the virile portion of their community: Eve was not in their image. Their's was restricted to Adam; nevertheless, she was after the image and likeness of some of those comprehended in the pronoun "our." Be this as it may, though not in the image, she was in the likeness of Adam; and both "very good according to the subangelic nature they possessed. Elpis Israel Chapter Two
The evidence before us, as far as the import of words and phrases is concerned, seems to indicate the neuter personality of the Spirit, the masculine words having relation to something else that is affirmed of it, and being masculine from the custom of the language. Though the word Pneuma be neuter, the gender of the spirit might be masculine or feminine. HERALD KINGDOM AND AGE TO COME 1852
"And He took one of his ribs" —The word tsela, from tsala "to incline," is nowhere else used for "rib," but is translated "side" (e.g. Exod. 25:12). Exactly what part, or how much, of Adam's side was taken from him is not revealed. But whatever part it was, it transferred the feminine qualities of the man to Eve, his wife (Eph. 5:22). She became his counterpart; and she, complementing him, made him complete.genesis expositorPosted by benzion888 at 17:12 No comments:
54 From Adam three natures were begotten. The first was the irrational, which was Cain's, the second the rational and just, which was Abel's, the third the spiritual, which was Seth's. Now that which is earthly is “according to the image,” that which is psychical according to the “likeness” of God, and that which is spiritual is according to the real nature; and with reference to these three, without the other children of Adam, it was said, “This is the book of the generation of men.” And because Seth was spiritual he neither tends flocks nor tills the soil but produces a child, as spiritual things do. And him, who “hoped to call upon the name of the Lord” who looked upward and whose “citizenship is in heaven” – him the world does not contain.
Man is a creation of the Demiurgus or the Elohim. He is formed from matter (hulê), receives a soul (psuchê) from the Demiurgus, and a spirit (pneuma) from Achamoth. The nature of man is thus a compound formed of three elements, Body, Soul, and Spirit.
Man has three natures spirit and soul and body
1 Thessalonians 5:23 May the very God of peace sanctify YOU completely. And sound in every respect may the spirit and soul and body of YOU [brothers] be preserved in a blameless manner at the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ. 24 He who is calling YOU is faithful, and he will also do it.
The “spirit” (Heb., ruach; Gr., pneuma) should not be confused with the “soul” (Heb., nephesh; Gr., psykhe´), for they refer to different things. Thus, Hebrews 4:12 speaks of the Word of God as ‘piercing even to the dividing of soul and spirit, and of joints and their marrow.’ (Compare also Php 1:27; 1Th 5:23.) As has been shown, the soul (nephesh; psykhe´) is the creature itself. The spirit (ruach; pneuma) generally refers to the life-force of the living creature or soul, though the original-language terms may also have other meanings.
The spirit is the mind of man the soul is the heart or emotions and of course the body is a physical nature
The “spirit” (Heb., ruach; Gr., pneuma) should not be confused with the “soul” (Heb., nephesh; Gr., psykhe´), for they refer to different things.
Definition: A Body is a physical or spiritual vessel. In other words a human or angelic body.
Definition: A Soul is a human body.
Definition: A Dead Soul is a dead body
Definition: A Spirit is a character, a personality. It is 'you'.
"Operating upon the brain [physical (body)], it [indwelling sin] excites the 'propensities' (the outward senses), and these set the 'intellect' [mental (spirit)], and 'sentiments' [moral (soul)] to work. The propensities are blind, and so are the intellect and sentiments in a purely natural state; when therefore, the latter operate under the sole impulse of the propensities, 'the understanding is darkened through ignorance, because of the blindness of the heart'". Ephesians 4:18
Man has three natures spirit and soul and body
The Flesh or hylics
hylics, also called somatics (from Gk σ?μα (s?ma) "body"),
An extension of the idea that flesh composes the visible, tangible parts of the body is the use of the word “flesh” to refer in a general way to the whole body. (Le 17:14; 1Ki 21:27; 2Ki 4:34) It is also used to refer to the person, or individual, as a human of flesh. (Ro 7:18; Col 2:1, 5
. “Flesh” is often used in the Bible to represent man in his imperfect state, ‘conceived in sin’ as an offspring of rebellious Adam. (Ps 51:5; Ro 5:12; Eph 2:3) In humans who are trying to serve God, ‘the spirit [impelling force emanating from the figurative heart] is eager, but the flesh is weak.’ (Mt 26:41) Within these servants of God there is a constant conflict; God’s holy spirit is a force for righteousness, but the sinful flesh continually wars against the spirit’s influence and exerts pressure to induce the individual to perform the works of the flesh. (Ro 7:18-20; Ga 5:17) The works of sinful flesh are contrasted with the fruitage of the spirit, at Galatians 5:19-23.
The Spiritual Man and The soulful.
The apostle contrasts the spiritual man with the physical man. He says: “But a physical [literally, soulical] man does not receive the things of the spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him.” (1Co 2:14) This “physical man” does not mean merely one living on earth, one with a fleshly body, for, obviously, Christians on earth have fleshly bodies. The physical man here spoken of means one who has no spiritual side to his life. He is “soulical” in that he follows the desires of the human soul to the exclusion of spiritual things.
Paul continues about the “physical man,” that he cannot get to know the things of the spirit of God “because they are examined spiritually.” Then he says: “However, the spiritual man examines indeed all things, but he himself is not examined by any man.” The spiritual man has understanding of the things God reveals; he sees also the wrong position and course of the physical man. But the spiritual man’s position, actions, and course of life cannot be understood by the physical man, neither can any man judge the spiritual man, for God only is his Judge. (Ro 14:4, 10, 11; 1Co 4:3-5) The apostle says by way of illustration and argument: “For ‘who has come to know the mind of Jehovah, that he may instruct him?’” No one, of course. “But,” Paul says of Christians, “we do have the mind of Christ.” By getting the mind of Christ, who reveals Jehovah and his purposes to Christians, they are spiritual men.—1Co 2:14-16.
James chapter 1 "A double minded man is unstable in all his ways" — The word "double-minded" is a translation of dipsuchos which signifies two-souled! One soul is for God, and one is for self! The double-minded man has feet in both camps. Jas 3:15 This wisdom is not one, from above, coming down, but is earthly, born of the soul, demoniacal!
Jude 1:19 These, are they who make complete separation, mere men of soul, Spirit, not possessing.
Waves and particles.? A ?claim has been? made ?in? ?the? ?scientific world that gravity wavers have been detected from? ?stars? ?(black holes?) ?that are said to have? c?ollided I billion years ago (Times 12/2).?
The detectors were laser beam instruments placed? 2000? miles apart in the USA,? which detected these minute oscillatio?ns,? ?and interpreted them as gravity waves? ?proving? ?Einstein's Relativity? Theory, that gravity is caused by ?space-time bending around celestial bodies? ?(stars,? ?planets?)?.?
An? ?alternative? ?theory of gravity which is being attempted to be proved by the Hadron Collider ? ?is that gravity is caused? by particles of energy called gravitons. If so, this would prove Newton’s theory of?gravity,? ?that? ?gravity is emitted by all matter, ie. gravity is a property of matter, an attractive? force that holds everything in place in the universe, through ?mutual attraction,? ?and is little different? ?than? ?photons which are the particles/waves of light? transmitted ?through the ether or space from stars,? the difference being ?that gravitons are? massless.
?COMMENT; Obviously if two stars collide all? ?kinds of as? ?particles? ?and waves will be emitted over long distances through the cosmos.? ?All? ?are simply forms? ?of? ?energy or Spirit which emanates from Yahweh, the great focal centre of the Cosmos and? ?source of all energy.? ?All these? particles and waves (photons, gravitons, bosuns,, neutrinos, antimatter etc. are simply diverse manifestations of spirit which is everywhere in the cosmos, all pervading and proves the scripture (Psa 139). The wave particle duality of matter has long been known an is in fact a profound mystery b?oth at the quantum physics level and the astrological level, showing indeed that it is the spirit? power ?of Deity which cannot be readily understood by mortal man. In fact there are laws of physics operating in the Cosmos that man knows? nothing about, although he is frantically trying to find out and exploit for his own corrupt and vain purposes, as he did with atom power (e=mc2).Posted by benzion888 at 02:30 No comments:
The first holy spirit is the Active Force of the Deity
God’s Active Force; Holy Spirit. By far the majority of occurrences of ru´ach and pneu´ma relate to God’s spirit, his active force, his holy spirit.
In Hebrew the word "Spirit" is ruach is a feminine noun, leading to references as "She".
The holy spirit is a force, the invisible power and energy of the Father by which God is everywhere present.
The chosen messengers have been given only the power and authority from Yahweh they need to accomplish their mission. Gen 1:2; Num 11:17; Mt 3:16; John 20:22; Ac 2:4, 17, 33.
The Spirit is not a 'separate' or 'other' person. Ac 7:55, 56; Re 7:10 It is God's own radiant power, ever out flowing from Him, by which His 'everywhereness' is achieved. Ps 104:30; 1 Cor 12:4-11.
The Spirit is personal in that it is of God Himself: it is not personal in the sense of being some other person within the Godhead" The phrase like a dove is a descriptive comparison. The Spirit is not a dove, but descended like one in some sort of bodily representation.
Distinguished from “power.” Ru´ach and pneu´ma, therefore, when used with reference to God’s holy spirit, refer to God’s invisible active force by which he accomplishes his divine purpose and will. It is “holy” because it is from Him, not of an earthly source, and is free from all corruption as “the spirit of holiness.” (Ro 1:4) It is not Jehovah’s “power,” for this English word more correctly translates other terms in the original languages (Heb., ko´ach; Gr., dy´na·mis).
Ru´ach and pneu´ma are used in close association or even in parallel with these terms signifying “power,” which shows that there is an inherent connection between them and yet a definite distinction. (Mic 3:8; Zec 4:6; Lu 1:17, 35; Ac 10:38)
“Power” is basically the ability or capacity to act or do things and it can be latent, dormant, or inactively resident in someone or something. “Force,” on the other hand, more specifically describes energy projected and exerted on persons or things, and may be defined as “an influence that produces or tends to produce motion, or change of motion.” “Power” might be likened to the energy stored in a battery, while “force” could be compared to the electric current flowing from such battery. “Force,” then, more accurately represents the sense of the Hebrew and Greek terms as relating to God’s spirit, and this is borne out by a consideration of the Scriptures.
The second holy spirit is a group of angels called the church or the Jerusalem above
The holy spirit is described by John as the helper:
26 But the helper, the holy spirit, which the Father will send in my name, that one will teach you all things and bring back to your minds all the things I told you (John 14).
But Adam's wife was described in the same way:
18 And Jehovah God went on to say: It is not good for the man to continue by himself. I am going to make a helper for him, as a complement of him (Genesis 2).
*Now we know that Yahweh is the husband to Israel and the lamb is the husband of the 144’000 Isa 54:5 Jer 31:32 Rev 19:8,9
So the holy spirit is a compound wife 'corporation', or 'incorporated' means a lot of people regarded as one body. that is a group Collective
In fact God's wife is likewise 144,000 holy angels who as a group make up the holy spirit, the house of God, his church.
Angels are spirits
4 Making his angels [his messengers] spirits, his ministers a devouring fire (Psalm 104).
13 But with reference to which one of the angels has he ever said: Sit at my right hand, until I place your enemies as a stool for your feet?
14 Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth on behalf of those who are going to inherit salvation? (Hebrews 1).
31 And he proceeded to fill him with the spirit of God in wisdom, in understanding and in knowledge and in every sort of craftsmanship (Exodus 35).
Since the holy spirit imparts wisdom it must be an intelligent being or beings. Likewise we can deduce that the holy spirit is a living intelligent thing because it can plead for us:
26 In like manner the spirit also joins in with help for our weakness; for the [problem of] what we should pray for as we need to we do not know, but the spirit itself pleads/intercedes for us with groanings unuttered (Romans 8).
The holy spirit does God's ministering and contains ministers, who are holy spirits plural. So the holy spirit is a group of angels.
Hence Paul said:
26 But the Jerusalem above is free, and she is our mother (Galatians 4).
The Jerusalem above is God's heavenly administration which is made up of all the archangels, which is all of the holy spirits. Paul explicitly states that these angels are our Mother, for they give birth to all the new angels. Now mother's plead with father's not to be too hard on errant sons. And that is precisely the meaning of Romans 8:26, the holy spirit interceding with God for the sanctified ones, is the mother interceding with the father for her sons
Heb 1: 14 Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?
Mt 12:50 For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother.
Lk 7:35 All the same, wisdom is proved righteous by all its children.”
Thus we can speak of the true believers who is conceived by the spirit-word and by the holy spirit, so as to give birth to the will of the Father, is the Mother of Jesus. And Isaiah tells us 62:5: “so shall thy sons marry thee.
The Jerusalem above is the Mother of us all (saints) including the King the Lord Jesus Christ in a spiritual sense for the Jerusalem above is made up of all true believers.
the brethren are the bride of Christ and the Mother is the Sarah Covenant styled “the Jerusalem above the Mother of us all” (Gal 4:26).
the newly born had been begotten by the spirit word (1Pet 1:23). after the birth (jn 3:3,5), it was the duty of the mother (Ecclesia) to nourish the new-born babe with the milk of the word (1Pet 2:2), supplementing it with stronger food as it developed
The Jerusalem above the Mother of us all including the King the Lord Jesus Christ is made up of all the true believers. And she is the worthy woman of Proverbs 31, of whom it is said: “Many daughters have done righteously, but you out shined them all.“
22 but ye are come unto mount Zion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels,
23 to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
24 and to Jesus the mediator of a new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling that speaketh better than that of Abel.
God does refer to a whole nation of people as one person...
22 And you must say to Pharaoh: This is what Jehovah has said: Israel is my son, my firstborn (Exodus 4).
He also refers to the entire church as Jesus' wife, one person in the singular...
22 Let wives be in subjection to their husbands as to the Lord,
23 because a husband is head of his wife as the Christ also is head of the congregation, he being a savior of [that] body.
24 In fact, as the congregation is in subjection to the Christ, so let wives also be to their husbands in everything (Ephesians 5).
So the whole congregation is regarded as being one body, one wife.
Jesus said, "Whoever does not hate his father and his mother as I do cannot become a disciple to Me. And whoever does [not] love his father and his mother as I do cannot become a [disciple] to Me. For My mother [gave me falsehood], but [My] true [Mother] gave me life."
The Saviour himself said: Just now my mother, the Holy Spirit, took me by one of my hairs [an angel who ministered to Jesus after his sacrifice Jesus would have the promised headship of the holy spirit ] and carried me up to the great mountain, Tabor (Gospel of the Hebrews).
So the Holy Spirit is Jesus’ mum. The third holy spirit is the chief elohim or the archangel Michael
Michael, mi'-chå-el (Heb.)--who is like unto God?; who is like God; who is assimilated of God; Godlike; who is like expanding power. Michael represents mercy and loving-kindness.
"The archangel" (Jude 9), or "one of the chief princes" who came to help Daniel (Dan. 10:13). He is mentioned in Revelation 12:7 as the leader of the heavenly army that wars against the dragon. There are several Israelites by this name mentioned in the Bible, too (Num. 13:13; I Chron. 5:13; 6:40; 7:3; 8:16; 12:20; 27:18).
The foremost angel, both in power and authority, is Michael, the archangel. (Da 10:13, 21; 12:1; Jude 9; Re 12:7; Because of his preeminence and his being called “the great prince who is standing in behalf of the sons of [God’s] people,” he is presumed to be the angel that led Israel through the wilderness. (Ex 23:20-23)
Michael being "one of the chief" implies a hierarchy amongst Angels; hence Jude 9 speaks of "Michael the Archangel".
The LXX renders Dan. 12:1 as “the great Angel” (AV “great prince”). The closeness of association between the Angel Michael and His people Israel is shown by the fact that when He 'stands up' in the last days many of the people of Israel
Hebrews 1 labours the point that the Lord Jesus was not an Angel. This Angel was not the Lord Jesus, but just as Michael represented Israel (Dan. 12:1), so this Angel was the representative of the Messiah.
Michael is the Angel especially responsible for Israel, and therefore one of the most powerful Angels- "Michael one of the chief princes" (Dan. 8:13), "the great prince" (Dan. 12:1). The LXX renders Dan. 12:1 as “the great Angel” (AV “great prince”). Under Michael's control there are many other Angels similarly dedicated to the affairs of the people of Israel- Dt. 11:12 describes the land of Israel as "a land which Yahweh thy God careth for: the eyes of Yahweh thy God (i. e. the Angels) are always upon it from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year". In passing, does the phrase "Yahweh thy God" refer to the Angel which led them through the wilderness? The Angel Michael? Remember Moses was speaking to the people of Israel at this time, and as we saw earlier, they very much conceived of the "Yahweh thy God" in terms of the Angel of the presence going with them. Thus God was promising that His Angels would physically be present in the land and would be especially sensitive to the events there. The degree to which God wanted Israel to conceive of Him in terms of Angels is shown by carefully considering the command for Israel not to have chariots (Dt. 17:16 cp. Is. 2:7). As this form of transport became increasingly popular, it must have seemed as crazy as Christians being told not to possess motor cars. There must have therefore been a highly significant teaching behind it. Was the purpose of it to make Israel look to the Angel-cherubim chariots of God? The word for 'cherubim' carries the idea of a chariot; the notion of horsemen corresponds with the Angel horseriders of Zechariah and Revelation.
Zech. 1:11 describes the Angels as walking "to and fro through the earth (Heb. 'eretz'- the land, of Israel), and behold, all the earth (land) sitteth still and is at rest". "They are the eyes (Angels) of the LORD which run to and fro through the whole earth" (Zech. 4:10). It may even be that the satan Angel of Job was walking to and fro through the land of Israel (going up and down in the "earth"- land) rather than through the whole planet, inspecting the true worshippers (who would only have been located in the area around Israel in all probability). Perhaps it is to the physical presence of the Angel in the land that Ezek. 35:10 refers " Thou (the Arabs) hast said, These two nations and these two countries (Israel and Judah) shall be mine, and I will possess it; whereas the LORD (the Angel Michael) was there". Yet this same Angel ministered judgement on Israel- Ezek. 7:14 and 20:17 describe God's eye (the Angel Michael) not sparing or pitying, and in so doing goes back to the language of Is. 63 where we see that the Angel was capable of showing pity, but ceased to because of Israel's sin (v. 9,10). Ps. 83 also speaks of the Arab aggression towards Israel and therefore Michael in the last days: "They have taken crafty counsel against Thy people" (v. 3)- Israel are Michael's people. They say "let us take to ourselves the houses of God" (v. 12)- i. e. the Angel's dwelling place in the temple. They will be punished by a mighty theophany involving " a wheel. . . the wind. . the fire. . . Thy tempest. . . Thy storm" (v. 13-15)- all of which is the language of the Angel-cherubim and God manifestation in the Angels (e. g. Ps. 104:1-4).
Amos 7 speaks of God through His Angels 'standing up' for Israel as the result of the prayer of Amos and a faithful remnant. Amos sees visions of the impending judgements on Israel. After each he prays "O Lord God, forgive, I beseech Thee: who shall stand for Jacob? ('If you, his Angel-God, don't?') For he is small". The answer comes: "The Lord repented for this. It shall not be, saith the Lord". He repented for the sake of one intense prayer! Notice too Amos asking "Who shall stand for Jacob?". Michael the Angel stands for Israel in the court of Heaven, and thus it appears Amos is pointing out that if Israel is condemned and punished they will have no Angel with them- and so the Angel changes His mind.
All the Angels are righteous, but they act out the roles of the various situations on earth, and God gives His judgment upon them. Dt. 32:8 LXX suggests each nation has a representative Angel. We note that the prince of Persia "withstood". God of course could have forced him to do His will.
Michael the Angel stands for Israel in the court of Heaven (as the Angel 'God of Jacob'; Dan. 12:1), and it would appear that He is the same Angel that appeared to the patriarchs in making the promises and thus the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob was understood by them in terms of an Angel.
This is made specific in Gen. 48:15,16, where Jacob says : "God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto this day, the Angel which redeemed me from all evil. . . ". This Angel earlier told Jacob that He was "the God of Bethel"" (Gen. 31:11,13), where "Jacob vowed a vow saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go. . . " (28:20). Thus to him 'God' was the Angel.
Other references lend support: "The Angel of the Lord appeared unto (Moses) in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. . . He said, I am the God of. . Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. . . I have surely seen the affliction of My people (the Angels are the eyes of the Lord). . . and I am come down to deliver them. . to bring them up out of that land unto a good land (this was all done by the Angel which led Israel through the wilderness). . . the cry of the children of Israel is come unto Me (language of limitation). . . ye shall say unto (Pharaoh), The Lord, God of the Hebrews, hath met with us (Ex. 3:2,6,7,8,9,18). The Angel stresses at least three times in the chapter that He is the God of the patriarchs. Notice too how He also calls Himself the "God of the Hebrews"- i. e. the God of Israel. If "the God of Jacob" has reference to Angels, should not also "the God of Israel"? Frequently the phrase "the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel" is found in the prophets; and we have seen that "the Lord of Hosts" is invariably an Angelic title.
"The mighty God of Jacob" dwelt in the ark (Ps. 132:2,5); this was an Angel ( cp. Acts 7:46.
"The God of Hosts (Angels) is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge, Ps. 46:7,11 emphasizes. Note too the reference in v. 4 to "the tabernacles of the most high"- another Angelic phrase.
“The God of Jacob” gave a law, and he also “went out over the land of Egypt” (Ps. 81:4,5 RV)- all references to the work of the Angel on Sinai and at the Exodus.
Jacob was renamed Israel. The elders saw “the God of Israel”, or Jacob- i.e. they saw an Angel (Ex. 24:10).
Ps. 76 describes the God of Jacob as dwelling in Zion (v. 2)- where the Angel lived "At Thy rebuke. . . both the chariot and horse are cast into a dead sleep" (v. 6)- the language of Ex. 15:1 concerning the Angelic destruction of Pharaoh at the Red Sea (the "Lord" in the pillar of fire and cloud which caused their destruction was the Angel which travelled in the same pillar and talked to Moses- Ex. 14:24 cp. 33:9)
Ps. 81 has much Angelic language. "A law of the God of Jacob" (v. 4) refers to the Angels who gave the law. "I am the Lord thy God which brought thee out of the land of Egypt" (v. 10)- Angelic work. The same kind of links are found in Ps. 114 between the wilderness Angel and the "God of Jacob"-"When Israel went out of Egypt. . . the (Red) Sea. . . fled. . . at the presence of the God of Jacob; which turned the rock into a standing water" (the work of the Angel standing on the rock at Rephidim).
God and his Angel(s) are interchangeable there is an angel named Yahweh who is the Archangel Michael but not the Deity himself. the Archangel Michael functions as the Deity's personal manifestation on earth
The word Barbelo apparently comes from Hebrew Be-arba Eloha
The meaning of the Semitic/Aramaic name is uncertain ("God is in the four," "daughter of the lord," "mighty through God").
The name of Barbelo seems to be based on a form of the holy four-letter name of God within Judaism, and it apparently comes from Hebrew-perhaps ‘God (compare El) in (b-) four (arb(a),"
Barbelo comes "from the Hebrew baba' ‘eloh, ‘in the four is God'. with an abbreviated feminine ‘o' added to make the name a feminine aspect of God.
'The Deity-in Four', with reference to the Tetragrammaton Τετραγρ?μματον, meaning "[consisting of] four letters"), ???? in Hebrew and YHWH the ineffable four letters name of God
The memorial, in its simplest form, is ehyeh asher ehyeh, "l will be who I will be." Asher, "who," the relative pronoun in this memorial, is both singular and plural, masculine and feminine.
Barbelo is feminine aspect of God, Barbelo is mother, wisdom and the holy spirit or active force.
Barbelo she is Mother/Father and She brought forth the Christos through Him who is the Light.
Barbelo as the Mother the titles the Father and Mother (these are the masculine and feminine names of one androgynous being
The Holy Spirit - Barbelo, is not a person or primordial being controlled by the Father it is an aspects of the mind of God or mental powers, unfolding or expanding from its thought to become an idea
However “bar,” in Aramaic, means son, and in particular, “son of” the word that follows. If Bar means, “Son of,” and if, as the scholars say, “Belo” or "EL" seems to indicate the word “God,” the logical procession might be to see that Barbelo means the sons of God.
In the unfolding of creation Yahweh first established the invisible imperishable realms of light from non-being to be the root and foundation of what would be the perishable visible material realms
wishing to unfold the visible creation from that which is invisible Yahweh willed into being a feminine principle or attribute called Barbelo
all began with Yahweh, Yahweh as Father emanated Barbelo (the holy spirit or active force) full of light, life and majesty, she being filled with need to birth, conceived as glory the eternal Christ power the word of the Father
The earliest Christians – all of whom were Jews – spoke of the Holy Spirit as a feminine figure. The present article discusses the main proof texts, ranging from the ‘Gospel according to the Hebrews’ to a number of testimonies from the second century. The ancient tradition was, in particular, kept alive in East and West Syria, up to and including the fourth century Makarios and/or Symeon, who even influenced ‘modern’ Protestants such as John Wesley and the Moravian leader Count von Zinzendorf. It is concluded that, in the image of the Holy Spirit as woman and mother, one may attain a better appreciation of the fullness of the Divine.
In two previous articles, I discussed the place and role of both the doctrine and the experience of the Holy Spirit in the Early Church (Van Oort 2011; 2012). An important aspect remained, however: namely the fact that many early Christian authors – in particular those belonging to so-called ‘Jewish Christianity’1 – spoke of the Holy Spirit as Mother.
How did this come to pass? And which consequences may be derived from this phenomenon for present-day discourse on the Holy Spirit?
An essential background to the occurrence of the Holy Spirit as Mother is, of course, the fact that the Hebrew word for Spirit, ruach, is in nearly all cases feminine. The first Christians, all of whom were Jews, took this over. Also in Aramaic the word for Spirit, rucha, is feminine. All this, however, does not fully account for the early Jewish Christian practice. A close reading of the relevant texts will reveal more.
Jewish Christian sources
Origen and the ‘Gospel according to the Hebrews’
The first prooftext, which already brings in medias res, is from the Greek church father Origen (c. 185–254). In his Commentary on the Gospel of John, he says:
If anyone should lend credence to the Gospel according to the Hebrews, where the Saviour Himself says, ‘My Mother (m?t?r), the Holy Spirit, took me just now by one of my hairs and carried me off to the great Mount Tabor’, he will have to face the difficulty of explaining how the Holy Spirit can be the Mother (m?t?r) of Christ when She was herself brought into existence through the Word. But neither the passage nor this difficulty is hard to explain. For if he who does the will of the Father in heaven [Mt. 12:50] is Christ’s brother and sister and mother (m?t?r), and if the name of brother of Christ may be applied, not only to the race of men, but to beings of diviner rank than they, then there is nothing absurd in the Holy Spirit’s being His Mother (m?t?r); everyone being His mother who does the will of the Father in heaven. (Origen, Commentary on the Gospel of John 2, 12 – Preuschen 1903:67)
Origen, who in all probability dictated these lines when he was in Palestinian Caesarea, refers to a ‘Gospel according to the Hebrews’. Until today there is much discussion about the origin and contents of this Gospel (e.g. Frey 2012:593–606; Luomanen 2012:1–2, 235–243), but all specialists agree that it was of Jewish Christian provenance. Apart from several other things, we learn from this quote that, sometime in the beginning of the second century CE, the Jewish Christians of this Gospel spoke of the Holy Spirit as Mother (m?t?r).
The same is evident in another quote from Origen:
… but if one accepts (the following): ‘My Mother (m?t?r), the Holy Spirit, took me just now and carried me off to the great Mount Tabor,’ one could see who is his Mother (m?t?r). (Origen, Homilies on Jeremiah 15, 4 – Klostermann 1901:128)
From both quotes we may also learn that Origen himself accepted the concept of the Holy Spirit as Mother.
Jerome and the ‘Gospel according to the Hebrews’
The church father Jerome (c. 342–420), who spent many years in Bethlehem, makes mention of several passages from the Gospel of the Hebrews, too. In his Commentary on Micah, he says:
… and he should believe in the Gospel, which has been edited according to the Hebrews, which we have translated recently, in which it is said of the person of the Saviour: ‘My Mother (mater), the Holy Spirit, took me just now by one of my hairs ….’ (Jerome, Commentary on Micah 2, 7, 6 – Adriaen 1969:513)
The essence of the same quote from the Gospel of the Hebrews is found in Jerome’s Commentary on Ezekiel:
… and this relates to the Holy Spirit, who is mentioned with a female name (nomine feminino) among the Hebrews. For also in the Gospel which is of the Hebrews and is read by the Nazaraeans, the Saviour is introduced saying: ‘Just now, my Mother (mater), the Holy Spirit, took me up …’ (Jerome, Commentary on Ezekiel 4, 16, 13 – Glorie 1964:178).
In his Commentary on Isaiah, Jerome states:
And also this: (in the text) ‘like the eyes of a maid look to the hand of her mistress’ [Ps. 123:2], the maid is the soul and the mistress (dominam) is the Holy Spirit. For also in that Gospel written according to the Hebrews, which the Nazaraeans read, the Lord says: ’Just now, my Mother (mater), the Holy Spirit, took me.’ Nobody should be offended by this, for among the Hebrews the Spirit is said to be of the feminine gender (genere feminino), although in our language it is called to be of masculine gender and in the Greek language neuter. (Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah 11, 40, 9 – Adriaen 1963:459)
While Jerome was well acquainted with the old Jewish Christian tradition of the femininity of the Holy Spirit, which in his time was still alive among the ‘Nazaraeans’, who read the ‘Gospel according to the Hebrews’, he considered it to be a question of language only.
Epiphanius and Hippolytus on the prophet Elxai
For the Jewish Christians themselves, however, it was not merely a question of language. Apart from the Gospel according to the Hebrews, this is testified by a number of testimonies regarding the prophet Elxai. This Jewish Christian prophet—in the various sources also named as Elchasai, Alchasaios, Elkesai and Elxaios—is said to have received the revelation written about in the Book of Elchasai in Mesopotamia in the year 116–117.
The church father Epiphanius (c. 315–430), for many years bishop of Salamis and the metropolitan of Cyprus, transmits this revelation as follows:
Next he describes Christ as a kind of power and also gives His dimensions (…)And the Holy Spirit is (said to be) like Christ, too, but She is a female being (th?leian) (…). (Epiphanius, Panarion 19, 4, 1–2 – Holl I, 1915:219)
Later on in his book, Epiphanius reports essentially the same:
And he [i.e., Elxai] supposed also that the Holy Spirit stands over against Him (i.e., Christ) in the shape of a female being (en eidei th?leian) (…). (Epiphanius, Panarion 30, 17, 6 – Holl I, 1915:375)
Earlier the learned Hippolytus (c. 170–c. 236), a Christian presbyter at Rome, had transmitted the same tradition on Elchasai:
There should also be a female (th?leian) with Him (i.e., with Christ as an angel) (…) The male is the Son of God and the female (th?leian) is called the Holy Spirit. (Hippolytus, Refutatio 9, 13, 3 – Wendland 1916:251)
A next testimony to the Holy Spirit’s femininity may be derived from the so-called Pseudo-Clementines. The Pseudo-Clementines is a work circulated under the name of Clement of Rome (fl. c. 96), which came down to us in two fourth-century forms: the Greek Homilies and the Latin Recognitions. Both forms contain very old Jewish Christian source material. The Jewish Christian concept of the Spirit as a feminine Being is, by implication, preserved in one of the Homilies:
And Peter answered: ‘One is He who said to His Wisdom, ‘Let us make a man’ [Gen. 1:26]. His Wisdom (sophia), with Her (Greek: hei, 3rd p. sing. feminine) He Himself always rejoiced [Prov. 8:30] just as (h?sper) with His own Spirit (pneumati).’ (Ps.-Clementines, Hom. 16, 12, 1 – Rehm 1969:223)
The text identifies Wisdom with the Holy Spirit. This equation of Wisdom (chokma, sophia) and Holy Spirit (ruach, pneuma) has old parallels in Jewish and Jewish Christian traditions. Already in the Jewish book Wisdom of Solomon, preserved in Greek as part of the Septuagint and being in high esteem among most early Christian writers, one finds this equation; for instance, in Wisdom 9, 17 it runs:
Who has learned thy (i.e., God’s) counsel, unless thou hast given wisdom (sophian) and sent thy holy Spirit (pneuma) from on high? (Wisdom of Solomon 9, 17 [Revised Standard Version])
Wisdom is equated with the Holy Spirit and both are considered to be feminine.2 Hence one understands how in early Christian tradition Christ is so often considered to be the child of mother Sophia or the Holy Spirit.3 In essence, both traditions express the same concept. The oldest patristic testimonies to this concept are the texts from Origen and Jerome quoted above.
In interpreting all these testimonies, one should bear in mind that ancient Jewish Christianity did not express itself in Greek discursive terminology, but in Semitic metaphorical language. Or, stated otherwise: the Jewish Christians expressed themselves in images, not in logical concepts. Accordingly, one may also understand that the Christian concept of Trinity is not merely due to Greek philosophical thinking, but has genuine and extremely old sources in Jewish Christian writings.4 One may reread the statements of Hippolytus and Epiphanius on Elxai’s vision of God with his Son and the female Spirit as quoted above.
Theophilus and Irenaeus
The influence of the archaic Jewish Christian tradition on Spirit and Sophia is even found in Greek Christian authors such as Theophilus of Antioch (fl. later 2nd c.) and Irenaeus of Lyon (c. 130–c. 200). In his writing Against Autolycus, the Greek bishop and apologist Theophilus wrote for instance:
God made everything through His Logos and Sophia, for ‘by His Logos the heavens were made firm and by His Spirit all their power.’ [Ps.32:6] (…)
Similarly the three days prior to the luminaries [cf. Gn. 1] are types of the Triad (triados), of God and His Word and His Wisdom (Theophilus, Ad Autol. 1, 7; 2, 15 – Grant 1970:10; 52).
In Greek speaking bishop Irenaeus’ work Against Heresies, which is mainly transmitted in Latin, it runs inter alia:
… the Son and the Holy Spirit (Spiritus), the Word and the Wisdom (Sapientia) (…)
For with Him were always present the Word and the Wisdom (Sapientia), the Son and the Spirit (Spiritus)
The Shepherd of Hermas is a rather enigmatic and, in all probability, composed document which originated in Rome between the end of the first and the middle of the second century. Its final form consists of five ‘Visions’, twelve ‘Mandates’ and ten ‘Similitudes’. In the second and third centuries, it was accepted as Scripture by several ecclesiastical authors and even Didymus the Blind, a contemporary of Athanasius in the fourth century, included it in his canon of Scripture. It is also found in the highly important biblical manuscript Codex Sinaiticus, dating from the same time.5 In many of its utterances, the Shepherd reveals its Jewish Christian provenance.
One of these Jewish Christian features is the concept of the Holy Spirit as feminine. Although the Shepherd of Hermas (now generally classified as one of the ‘Apostolic Fathers’) uses the word ‘spirit’ in a variety of ways, in several cases ‘spirit’ appears to mean ‘Holy Spirit’. One of these cases is SimilitudeIX (Körtner & Leutzsch 1998:300 ff.), where the Holy Spirit is presented in the image of twelve virgins (parthenoi). The plural should not lead us astray here.6 Elsewhere in the Shepherd the Holy Spirit—in her equivalent the Church—is described as being pre-existent and also as an old women (gun? presbutis) (Vis. I, 2, 2; cf. e.g. II, 4, 1 ff.: presbutera in Körtner & Leutzsch 1998:158).7
Melito of Sardis
Some decades later, and in another part of the Roman Empire, Melito of Sardis († c. 190) composed his homily On the Passover. It became famous after its discovery and publication by Campbell Bonner in 1940. In its newest editions one finds some fragments added, the seventeenth of which reads as follows:
Hymn the Father, you holy ones;
sing to your Mother (t?i m?tri), virgins.
We hymn, we exalt (them) exceedingly, we holy ones.
You have been exalted to be brides and bridegrooms,
for you have found your bridegroom, Christ.
Drink for wine, brides and bridegrooms … (Melito, Frg. 17 – Hall 1979:84–85)
It does not seem to be beyond doubt that the fragment, which follows On the Passover in a Bodmer Papyrus Codex, really stems from Melito. In any case it is a liturgical dialogue, if not part from Melito’s sermon, then perhaps of a baptismal liturgy. In its main theme and imagery, On the Passover is close to Jewish Christian thinking in general and Jewish Paschal tradition in particular. In the just quoted fragment, the Mother is without a doubt the Holy Spirit.
Sources from East and West Syria
As we have just seen with Theophilus, Irenaeus, the Pastor Hermae and (perhaps) Melito, the concept of the Spirit as feminine is sometimes found as an archaic reminiscence of Jewish Christianity in later Greek writers. However, in several Christian writings stemming from Syria, which mainly had Syriac (a branch of Aramaic) as their original language, this speaking of the Holy Spirit as feminine really abounds.
The Gospel of Thomas
Apart from some Greek scraps, the Gospel of Thomas has been mainly transmitted in a Coptic translation found in the second codex of the ‘gnostic’ library which, in December 1945, was discovered near Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt.8 Many researchers maintain that the Gospel of Thomas—in any case in its original form(s)—was not ‘gnostic’ at all, nor even tincted with typical ‘gnostic’ ideas, but a fine example of primitive Jewish and Syrian Christianity. One of its logia reads as follows:
(Jesus said:) Whoever does not hate his father and his mother in My way will not be able to be a (disciple) to me. And whoever does (not) love (his father) and his mother in My way will not be able to be a (disciple) to me, for My mother (tamaay) (…) but (My) true (Mother) gave me the Life. (Gospel of Thomas, logion 101 – Guillaumont a.o. 1998:50; Nagel 2014:152)
Here, the true Mother is the Holy Spirit.
The Acts of Thomas
The Acts of Thomas recount the missionary activities of the apostle Judas Thomas. It is generally agreed that the composite work, which has survived in several Syriac and Greek manuscripts, was written in Syriac sometime before the middle of the third century. It contains many archaic elements pointing to early Jewish Christian tradition in Syria.
One of these archaic Jewish Christian elements is the concept of the Holy Spirit as feminine. It is clearly found in the following texts transmitted in Greek:
And the apostle arose and sealed them (…): Come, compassionate Mother (m?t?r); (…) Come, Mother (m?t?r) of the seven houses (…); Come, Holy Spirit (pneuma) and cleanse their loins and their heart, and seal them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit (pneumatos). (Acta Thomae 27 – Lipsius-Bonnet 1903 [repr. 1972]:142–143)
… we praise and glorify You (Christ), and Your invisible Father, and Your Holy Spirit (pneuma), (and) the Mother (m?tera) of all creation. (Acta Thomae 39 – Lipsius-Bonnet 1903 [repr. 1972]:157)
Come, secret Mother (m?t?r); Come, You who (fem.) are manifest in your deeds; You who (fem.) gives joy and rest to those who are united to You (fem.). (Acta Thomae 50 – Lipsius-Bonnet 1903 [repr. 1972]:166)
One may also compare Acta Thomae 7 (the Syriac text speaks of the glorification of ‘the Father, the Lord of all’ and ‘the Spirit, His Wisdom’) (cf. Klijn 2003:29), whereas the Greek text has: ‘The Father of truth and the Mother of Wisdom’) and Acta Thomae 133 (‘We name over you [i.e. the ‘bread of life’ in the eucharist] the name of the Mother [= the Holy Spirit]).
Gospels in Old Syriac, the Odes of Solomon, the Didascalia and the Apostolic Constitutions
A number of other writings from the Syrian world may be briefly dealt with under one heading. The first is the Old Syriac Version of the Gospels, which reaches back to the second century and transmits Jn 14:26 as follows:
… but that (Syr.: hi = she) Spirit, the Paraclete that my Father will send to you in my name, She (Syr. hi) shall teach you everything, She (hi) shall remind you of all what I say. (Evangelium da-Mepharrese – tr. Burkitt 1904:510–511)
In all probability, the Odes of Solomon are a (Jewish) Christian work which is almost certainly written in Syria or Palestine in the course of the same second century. In Ode 36, 3 it runs:
The Spirit of the Lord rested upon me,
and She lifted me up to the height (…)
She brought me forth before the face of the Lord (…)
For according to the greatness of the Most High,
so She made me (…) (Odes of Solomon 36, 3a – tr. Lattke 2009:492)
The Didascalia Apostolorum (‘Teaching of the Apostles’) is an ancient ‘Church Order’ which seems to have been composed in Syria in the earlier half of the third century. In the Syriac text of chapter 11 it runs:
This (i.e., the bishop) is your chief and your leader, and he is your mighty king. He rules in the place of the Almighty: but let him be honoured by you as God (…). But the deacon stands in the place of Christ, and do you love him. And the deaconess shall be honoured by you in the place of the Holy Spirit (…). (Didascalia apostolorum 9 –tr. Connolly 1929:86–88)
Virtually the same is stated in the Apostolic Constitutions, a collection of ecclesiastical commandments dating from the latter half of the fourth century and almost certainly of Syrian provenance:
Let also the deaconess (diakonis) be honoured by you in the place of the Holy Spirit (eis typon tou hagiou pneumatos) (…) (Apostolic Constitutions II, 26, 6 – Funk 1905:296)
Aphrahat and Ephrem
Clear resonances of this kind of representation are present in Aphrahat. As a rule he is said to be the first of the (orthodox) Syriac church fathers and also ‘the Persian sage’. We mainly know him from his so-called ‘Demonstrations’, a work dating from about 340. In the eighteenth Demonstration it runs with reference to Genesis 2:24:
Who is it that leaves father and mother to take a wife? The meaning is this. As long as a man has not taken a wife he loves and reveres God his Father and the Holy Spirit his Mother, and he has no other love. (Aphrahat, Dem. 18 – Parisot 1980:840; tr. Murray 1975:143)
One may add to this quote a passage from Demonstration VI, where Aphrahat speaks of the role of the Spirit in baptism:
From baptism we receive the Spirit of Christ, and in the same hour that the priests invoke the Spirit, She opens the heavens and descends, and hovers over the waters [cf. Gen. 1:2], and those who are baptized put Her on. (Aphrahat, Dem. 6 – Parisot 1980:292–293; tr. Murray 1975:143)
Although Ephrem Syrus (c. 306–373), who wrote most of his extant works in Edessa, conjugates the Syriac word rucha as feminine, one finds only one or two passages9 in his œuvre which highlight her femininity. In one of these it runs:
It is not said of Eve that she was Adam’s sister or his daughter, but that she came from him; likewise it is not to be said that the Spirit is a daughter or sister, but that (She) is from God and consubstantial with Him. (Ephrem, Commentary on the Concordant Gospel or Diatessaron 19, 15 – Leloir 1953:277; tr. Murray 1975:318)
Finally, an extremely rich and influential source is constituted by the homilies of Symeon of Mesopotamia. For centuries, these homilies were transmitted under the name of Makarios (Macarius), an Egyptian monk who lived c. 300–390 and was a staunch supporter of Athanasius. Modern research, however, established that their real author is no other than a certain contemporary Symeon, who lived in Mesopotamia, in the vicinity of the upper Euphrates. The homilies of this Symeon mainly survive in Greek in four collections. The second collection, consisting of fifty ‘spiritual’ homilies, became the most popular, but the other three are important as well.10
Here I quote only some of the most conspicuous examples, derived from a number of editions of the various collections. In the most influential Fifty Homilies, we read:
And from his (sc. Adam’s) time until the last Adam, the Lord, man did not see the true heavenly Father and the good and kind Mother (m?tera), the grace of the Spirit (pneumatos) (…). (Makarios/Symeon, Hom. 28, 4 – Dörries, Klostermann & Kroeger 1964:232–233)
Elsewhere it runs of the Holy Spirit:
She (aut?) is the kind and heavenly Mother (m?ter) (…) (Makarios/Symeon, Hom. 27, 4 – Klostermann 1961:155)
Repeatedly it is stressed by Makarios that there is no human birth without a mother, and therefore no spiritual birth without the Holy Spirit (e.g. Hom. 8, 1; Klostermann 1961:37). As the mother (m?ter) of young birds cares for them, so the Holy Spirit provides food for God’s children (Hom. 16, 2; Klostermann 1961:79–81). At another occasion, Makarios speaks of ‘the grace of the Spirit, the Mother (m?ter) of the holy’ (Hom. 27, 1; Klostermann 1961:151).
Over the centuries, the writings of Makarios and/or Symeon have exerted an enormous influence, both in the East and in the West, not only in Syriac Christianity and other Eastern Orthodox circles, but also among Protestants. It is interesting to note that, among many others (see e.g. Benz 1963; Van de Bank 1977), both the very influential John Wesley11 and the also very influential Nikolaus Ludwig Graf von Zinzendorf were deeply influenced by Makarios. Although in the case of the first one I was not able to find any stress on the femininity of the Holy Spirit, in Zinzendorf there is indeed. In his first address in Pennsylvania, for instance, he said that ‘the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is our true Father, and the Spirit of Jesus Christ is our true Mother’.12
Here I may conclude. It is not my aim to further look for influences of early Christian testimonies in this respect, nor did I even intend to be complete in my overview of early Christian texts.13 I only tried to make clear a certain current, which had its initials in early Jewish Christianity and also exerted its influence on other (‘orthodox’) Christian writers. It seems to have been the same Jewish and/or Jewish Christian influences which, moreover, can be found in many ‘gnostic’ texts, but I deliberately excluded these texts from my exposition.14 Here I just note that sometimes genuine Christian traditions and concepts, which became forgotten in mainstream Christendom, were kept alive in ‘heretical’ Christian circles.
It would be completely wrong to state that the image of the Holy Spirit as a woman and mother is simply caused by the fact that the Hebrew, Aramaic and Syriac words for ‘spirit’ are (nearly) always feminine. Of course this was an important factor, but there were other significant factors as well, such as the link between the figures of the Holy Spirit and Wisdom or between Holy Spirit and the Jewish feminine concept of the Divine Presence or Shekinah.15 Moreover, it should be remarked that, still, we are dealing with metaphorical language. Religious language is inherently metaphorical, that is, bound to images and similes. By its very nature it cannot define God’s essence. All ancients were aware of the fact that this essence of the Divine remains a holy mystery and is by nature ineffable.
Nevertheless, the very first Christians, all of whom were Jews by birth, used to speak of the Holy Spirit as feminine. These Jewish Christians (or, perhaps better: Christian Jews) adhered to Genesis 1:27 where it is said that God created male and female after his image. If this text is really taken for true, then something female is inherent to God. Apart from the image of a Mother, Syrian and other Jewish Christians stressed the ‘hovering’ (rahhef) of the Spirit as stated, for instance, in Genesis 1:2 and Deuteronomy 32:11.16 Besides, they attributed to the Spirit the motherly features which Jewish prophetic writings like Isaiah (49:15–15; 66:13) find in God. One may also bring to mind that, according to Matthew, Jesus compared himself to a mother bird (Mt. 23:37). Moreover, when believers are born anew from the Spirit (e.g. Jn 3), they are ‘children of the Spirit’, who is their ‘Mother’.17
An expression such as ‘children of the Spirit’ is typical to Makarios.18 It explicitly refers to the motherly function of the Holy Spirit. There appears to be a tender aspect in God (see e.g. Is 66:13) which can only be expressed in the simile of the Mother. This does not mean that in this way we have ‘defined’ God; it just means that in this way we attain a better appreciation of the fullness of the Divine.
The author declares that he has no financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced him in writing this article.
Acta Thomae, 1903 [repr. 1972], ‘27’, in R.A. Lipsius & M. Bonnet (eds.), Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, II, 2, pp. 142–143, Hinrichs, Leipzig, (repr. Hildesheim, Olms).
Acta Thomae, 1903 [repr. 1972], ‘39’, in R.A. Lipsius & M. Bonnet, (eds.), Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, II, 2, p. 157, Hinrichs, Leipzig, (repr. Hildesheim, Olms).
Acta Thomae, 1903 [repr. 1972], ‘50’, in R.A. Lipsius & M. Bonnet (eds.), Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, II, 2, p. 166, Hinrichs, Leipzig, (repr. Hildesheim, Olms).
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Makarios/Symeon, 1964, ‘Hom. 28,4’, in H. Dörries, E. Klostermann & M. Kroeger (eds.), Die 50 geistlichen Homilien des Makarios, pp. 232–233, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.
Makarios/Symeon, 1964, ‘Hom. 30,2’, in H. Dörries, E. Klostermann & M. Kroeger (eds.), Die 50 geistlichen Homilien des Makarios, p. 241, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.
Melito of Sardis, 1979, ‘Frg. 17’, in S.G. Hall (ed.), Melito of Sardis, On Pascha and Fragments, pp. 84–85, Texts and translations by Stuart George Hall, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Murray, R., 1975, Symbols of church and kingdom. A study in early Syriac tradition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Odae Solomonis, 2009, ’36, 3a’, in M. Lattke (ed.), Odes of Solomon, A Commentary by Michael Lattke, transl. M. Ehrhardt, H.W. Attridge (ed.), Fortress Press, Minneapolis, p. 492.
Origenes, 1901, ‘Homilies on Jeremiah’, in E. Klostermann (ed.), Origenes Werke, 3. Band, Jeremiahomilien, Klageliedkommentar, Erklärung der Samuel- und Königsbücher, p. 128, Hinrichs, Leipzig.
Origenes, 1903, ‘Commentary on the Gospel of John’, in E. Preuschen (ed.), Origenes Werke, 4. Band, Der Johanneskommentar, p. 67, Hinrichs, Leipzig.
Osiek, C., 1999, Shepherd of Hermas, Fortress, Minneapolis.
Outler, A.C. (ed.), 1964 (paperback ed. 1980), John Wesley, Oxford University Press, New York.
Pastor Hermae, 1998, ‘Similitudes’, in U.H.J. Körtner & M. Leutzsch (eds.), Papiasfragmente: Hirt des Hermas, pp. 242–359, Eingeleitet, herausgegeben, übertragen und erläutert von Ulrich H.J. Körtner und Martin Leutzsch, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt.
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Quispel, G., 2008, ‘The Holy Spirit as Woman in Apocalypse 12’, in J. van Oort (ed.), Gnostica, Judaica, Catholica: Collected essays of Gilles Quispel, Brill, Leiden-Boston.
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1. The term ‘Jewish Christianity’ is used here to denote those ancient form(s) of Christianity which directly stemmed from Jews and retained typical features of their faith and ways of thinking.
2. For this and related Jewish texts, see e.g. Bousset and Gressmann (1966:346, 397).
3. One of the first who saw this was Schüssler Fiorenza (1983:132–135); one may compare, for instance, Barker: 1992:48–69 [= Ch. Four: ‘The Evidence of Wisdom’]). Sometimes, however, their reasoning and rather quick conclusions should be taken with caution.
4. Kretschmar (1956:99) considers the scheme of Elxai’s vision to be ‘die älteste Form der “Trinitätslehre”’ (‘the oldest form of the “doctrine of the Trinity”’).
5. Unfortunately the end of Codex ? did not survive.
6. With reference to Seeberg (1924:371, 1922:140), his promovenda Selma Hirsch wrote in her dissertation (1926:41), ‘Der Geist wird hier pluralisch, als eine Mehrheit von Geistern gedacht, ”was aber ebensowenig wie ????? oder ?????? usw. auf eine Vielheit von Wesen zu deuten, sondern nur auf die Mannigfaltigkeit der in einem Wesen zusammengefaßten Kräfte hinweist“.’
7. More on the Shepherd’s pneumatology in concise form in e.g., Osiek (1999:31–34).
8. See e.g. Robinson (2014). Here and elsewhere I speak of ‘gnostic’ (between parentheses) to indicate that, in modern research, the term has become problematic.
9. Cf. Murray (1975:318–319, 144 n. 2): ‘… two passages in the Diatessaron commentary suggest that he was familiar with the tradition’. With reference to Murray (1975:313–319), Chorbishop Seely Joseph Beggiani (2014:81), reduces this to one.
10. Further particulars on the diverse (and overlapping) collections conveniently in, for instance Drobner (2007:370–372).
11. See e.g. Outler (1964 [paperback ed. 1980]: 9 where Outler also mentions his particular interest in Ephrem Syrus). Cf. e.g. a quote from Wesley himself (‘A plain account of genuine Christianity’) on p. 195. More on Wesley’s study of Makarios and the translation of his works in Benz (1963:118–127, n. 14).
12. Beyreuther & Meyer (1963:38): ‘… da der Vater unsers Herrn Jesu Christi unser wahrhaftiger Vater/ und der Geist Jesu Christi unsere wahrhaftige Mutter ist (…)’. A little further on it runs (38): ‘… daß es nicht anders sein kann, als daß sein (= Christ’s) Vater auch unser Vater und seine Mutter auch unsere Mutter sein muß’ and near the end (45): ‘… so spricht man von seinem und unserm Vater/ von dem Geist, der seine und unser aller wahrhafftige Mutter ist …’
13. An important testimony seems to be Apoc. 12; see e.g. Quispel (2008:749–752).
14. I only mention here Nag Hammadi writings such as the Apocryphon of John (e.g. 10, 17–18: ‘… the Holy Spirit, who is called the Mother of the living’) and the Gospel of Philip (e.g. 55 and 59), and testimonies such as Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. I, 30, 1–2 (the Sethians called the Spirit the First Woman: Primam Feminam) and Epiphanius, Panarion 21, 2, 3 (Simon Magus called Helena the Holy Spirit).
15. I do not enter the difficult question of whether or not Shekinah may be considered as (nearly) identical with God’s Spirit. See e.g. Schäfer (2002 [paperback 2004]). It is interesting to read on e.g. pp. 86–91 his argument that the Shekinah (which in his view is not identical to the Spirit) is the female aspect of God.
16. See e.g. Murray (1975:22, 144 and 313, among others).
" The Logos-Wisdom is the principle of all Divine and Esoteric Revelations. She has the characteristics of being the indwelling revealer of God. She IS the active principle and the transmitter of all Divine knowledge as well the cosmological cause of all creation. "
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